Sandstone Arches Get New Explanation

first_img(Visited 112 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The national park signs may need updating.Arches National ParkNatural sandstone arches occur in many parts of the world, most notably in Arches National Park in eastern Utah.  Visitors, upon reading the confident-sounding interpretive signs describing arch formation, might be surprised to learn that the origin of these structures is not fully understood.  In a recent paper in Nature Geoscience, researchers from the Czech Republic who ran some new lab experiments imply that prior theories are incomplete, if not wrong:Weathering and erosion of sandstone produces unique landforms such as arches, alcoves, pedestal rocks and pillars. Gravity-induced stresses have been assumed to not play a role in landform preservation and to instead increase weathering rates. Here we show that increased stress within a landform as a result of vertical loading reduces weathering and erosion rates, using laboratory experiments and numerical modelling. We find that when a cube of locked sand exposed to weathering and erosion processes is experimentally subjected to a sufficiently low vertical stress, the vertical sides of the cube progressively disintegrate into individual grains. As the cross-sectional area under the loading decreases, the vertical stress increases until a critical value is reached. At this threshold, fabric interlocking of sand grains causes the granular sediment to behave like a strong, rock-like material, and the remaining load-bearing pillar or pedestal landform is resistant to further erosion.The new theory is summarized in the BBC News.  In addition, Smithsonian Magazine has an embedded video clip of the experiments.In the authors’ view, gravity is the arch-hero, not the arch-villain.  The gravitational load causes a kind of self-organizing system: the sand grains lock together in the pillars, resisting erosion.  Eventually, of course, erosion wins, and the structure falls. It’s not clear if they can generalize this process to all arches.  They experimented with a particular sand in their home country.  “Critically, the sandstone from Strelec doesn’t contain cementing minerals that help bind the sand particles together,” the Smithsonian article says.  “Instead, the authors found that the stress put on the sandstone causes minerals to interlock and hold the rock together.”  It sounds like this is the best-case scenario to test the idea, because cementing materials would presumably increase the resistance to erosion in the pillars.  Whether this applies to the Entrada Sandstone in Arches National Park is not clear; it also would not seem to apply to granite arches, as pictured below.Mobius Arch (granite) by David CoppedgeWhatever its merits, this new theory turns the old one on its head: “We should not say erosion or weathering carved the forms, as it was the stress field which give the forms the shape,” lead author Jiri Bruthans asserts in the Smithsonian article. “Erosion processes are mere tools controlled by stress.”  The BBC quotes Bruthans comparing the stress field to Michelangelo.  “The stress field is the master sculptor – it tells the weather where to pick.”Not much is said in any of the articles about how long it takes for arches to form.  The Smithsonian says:The Czech team wanted to take a different approach. While doing fieldwork in Strelec quarry in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, they noticed that small arches and pillars—only about 2 feet high at most—formed out of the sandstone over mere months or years, rather than the millennial time scales associated with large geologic architecture.The BBC News, though, without a reference, says “The process had proved difficult to study, because natural slabs of sandstone erode over millions of years.”Landscape Arch, by David CoppedgeCreationists like Michael Oard have shown how just a few centuries since the Flood are sufficient (Creation.com, 2010) to form arches.  He quotes secular authors who estimate only tens of thousands of years, not millions, for their formation; in fact, Oard argues, too much time is problematic: the arches should be long gone after even tens of thousands of years.  Dr. Andrew Snelling, creation geologist, agrees, discussing sandstone arches briefly in the latest Answers Research Journal from AiG (July 2014).  “What the park rangers won’t tell you,” Snelling says, is that 43 sandstone arches have collapsed since 1970.  “Their loss is a sober reminder how delicate—and recent—these formations are,” he ends, after providing a Flood model for their formation.  “Rapid processes created them and are now destroying them.”The Nature Geoscience paper is not clear on timeframes, so it is not clear the new theory can speak to the age issue.  For the huge arches that were not observed forming, one can only estimate, considering variables and unknowns.  Did arches form under steady-state processes vs one-time processes (like the Flood)?  What were historical rainfall and wind patterns?  You can’t look at erosion in a desert today and simply assume it’s always been so slow.  It’s possible, in fact, to calculate reasonable upper limits on age of arches by taking conservative erosion rates today, and seeing how far back they can be extrapolated.  If those rule out the “millions of years” interpretation, they show old ages to be a philosophical bias, not a conclusion from the evidence.Two other conclusions can be drawn from this story, though.  One is the use of arches for design inference.  What’s the difference between Landscape Arch pictured above, and the St. Louis Arch?  Clearly the former is natural, and the latter intelligently designed.  Beyond intuition, how can we tell?  Use of such pithy examples can help teachers convey the principles of intelligent design.  (Note: Comparing stress fields to Michelangelo is a personification fallacy.)The other conclusion is that scientific theories are at best tentative, especially when they try to speak of the unobservable past.  The new theory  is partly empirical, because these scientists were able to reproduce some features in the lab.  But can one really scale up a small lab model by several orders of magnitude?  Other factors might intrude at that level.  For what it’s worth, the new theory overturns decades of thought and assumption about how these beautiful structures form, reminding us that science is, at best, a fallible human enterprise.  Remember this story when you read the authoritative-sounding National Park signs.last_img read more

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Ireland boost for SA housing

first_img16 January 2008The Irish government has approved a €5-million (about R50-million) grant for building township houses in South Africa, visiting Irish Prime Minister Bertie Ahern announced on Monday.Ahern said the Irish government’s development agency, Irish Aid, would give the money to the Niall Mellon Township Trust, created by Irish philanthropist Niall Mellon to build homes for impoverished South Africans.“It is up to all of us who care about the future of South Africa to take responsibility and do our bit,” Ahern said during an official visit to the Mitchell’s Plain, Cape Town site where Mellon’s charity is on the verge of completing 330 homes.So far, 239 families have moved out of ramshackle homes in the area into their new brick houses, with the Niall Mellon Townships Initiative aiming to complete 450 homes in the impoverished part of the huge township.The house-building charity has also homes elsewhere in cape Town, and is already well known by the Imizamo Yethu community of Hout Bay in Cape Town for providing many families there with decent homes.Mellon, whose charity began building homes for impoverished South Africans six years ago, accompanied Ahern, Irish Minister of State for Overseas Development Michael Kitt, and Ireland’s ambassador to South Africa, Colin Wrafter, on a tour of Freedom Park.Ahern visited the shack of the Van Schalkwyk family on the edge of the Freedom Park site, in which they have been living for almost 10 years, before viewing the Garden of Hope and the community centre, built by 1 370 Irish volunteers last year.Speaking to reporters and the entourage afterwards, Ahern said he expected that the van Schalkwyk family would be living in a modern brick home before long.This year, the Niall Mellon Township Trust aims to recruit 2 008 volunteers from Ireland to come and spend a week in the area in November and build more homes, and will be chartering seven aircraft to bring them over from Ireland.Already, 3 000 volunteers – drawn from almost every village on the small island of Ireland – have been to South Africa to contribute towards the government’s objective of providing decent homes for all South Africa.This was part of “a deep-rooted desire by Irish people to do their part”, Mellon said.Mellon added that the charity had expanded dramatically in recent years and that he would be removing his name from it at the end of this year in acknowledgement of the efforts of the volunteers and members of the recipient communities.Since its inception in 2002, the charity has built more than 5 000 houses for shack-dwellers, and now provides employment for almost 2 000 people in South Africa, most of them from the townships in which it is working.The charity is hoping to have built 7 000 houses by the end of this year.“It is very difficult to build a good school and send a child home to a shack and expect them to do well academically,” Mellon said.Greeted with applause from the community a song from a group of toddlers, Ahern later escorted a disabled woman, Joyce Saal, and her niece into their new home and handed them the keys.The Irish prime minister said that Ireland was now in sixth position in the world in terms of its aid per capita, adding that the Irish government was committed to reaching the industrialised nations’ target of providing 0.7 percent of GDP to development assistance, and to “stay there at that level of aid”.Source: BuaNewslast_img read more

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Muzaffarnagar riots: property of accused in murder case of eyewitness attached

first_imgAuthorities have attached properties of an absconding accused in the murder case of Ashfaq, who was an eyewitness in the killings of his two brothers during the Muzaffarnagar riots in Uttar Pradesh, police said on Wednesday. The properties of Sehdev, one of the seven accused in the case, have been attached after an order by the court of Chief Judicial Magistrate Rakesh Gautam, said Harsharan Sharma, Station House Officer of Khatauli. Six other accused in the case have already been arrested and Sehdev is currently on the run, he added. Ashfaq, who had witnessed the killings of his brothers Nawab and Shahid during the Muzaffarnagar riots of 2013, was shot dead on March 11 after he had apparently refused to withdraw the case, police said. The communal clashes in Muzaffarnagar and its adjoining areas in August and September 2013 had claimed more than 60 lives, while over 40,000 people were displaced.last_img read more

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SEA Games: Centeno, Amit on course for 9-ball gold medal battle

first_imgTrending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games03:07PH billiards team upbeat about gold medal chances in SEA Games05:25PH boxing team determined to deliver gold medals for PH03:04Filipino athletes share their expectations for 2019 SEA Games00:45Onyok Velasco see bright future for PH boxing in Olympics02:25PH women’s volleyball team motivated to deliver in front of hometown crowd01:27Filipino athletes get grand send-off ahead of SEA Games00:36Manny Pacquiao part of 2019 SEA Games opening ceremony Centeno, the reigning champion, took a bye before crushing Angeli Ticoalu of Indonesia, 7-4, to march to the next round.Then two-time world 10-ball champion Amit defeated Indonesia’s Silviana Lu, 7-3, in the other quarterfinal match.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingFILE – Chezka Centeno of the Philippines during the 28th SEA Games Women’s 9-Ball Pool. INQUIRER PHOTO/RAFFY LERMA“As much as possible we want a repeat performance,” said the 18-year-old Centeno who didn’t hide the fact that she looks up to Amit in and out of the pool house.In the men’s 9-ball pool Carlo Biado prevailed over Amnuayporn Chotipong of Thailand, 9-3, to advance to the semis. So far, the billiards team, with former world champions in the fold including Efren “Bata” Reyes, only has one medal to show.Former World No. 1 Dennis Orcollo and Warren Kiamco placed third in 9-ball doubles.The Philippines won three golds last SEA Games.ADVERTISEMENT SEA Games: PH duo settle for silver in men’s tennis LATEST STORIES Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul MOST READcenter_img Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters Rubilen Amit of the Philippines during 9-Ball competition in 2015 SEA Games. INQUIRER PHOTO/RAFFY LERMAKUALA LUMPUR — Filipino pool divas have made their way to an expected gold medal battle.The last Southeast Asian Games’ finalists Chezka Centeno and Rubilen Amit barged into the semifinals of the women’s 9-ball singles Friday at KLCC.ADVERTISEMENT Biggest Pogo service provider padlocked for tax evasion Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo View commentslast_img read more

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Three winners at Youth Explosion 2017

first_imgFacebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppProvidenciales, TCI, January 31, 2017 – High School seniors brought outstanding talent to a tourism centered culture show and this year the winnings are shared by three schools.  The TCI Tourists Board’s Youth Explosion 2017 was held on Friday at the Gus Lightbourne Gym and unlike last year where Wesley Methodist High swept all three categories, this year there were three winners in singing, dancing and costumes.  Nine original songs were impressively entered in the show, opened by the Minister of Tourism Ralph Higgs and sponsored chiefly by the TCI Tourist Board and its partners including the TC Hotel and Tourism Association.   Best dance went to the acrobatic Wesley Methodist, Best Costumes were donned say judges by Marjorie Basden High of South Caicos and best song went to the Eagles of Clement Howell High.  Happening Now – 3rd Youth Explosion kicks off in Provo You can see these performances on Turquoise Morning, watch for it beginning Wednesday – on PTV8, on 4News and Flow, One Caribbean Television.#MagneticMediaNews #YouthExplosion2017  Related Items:#magneticmedianews, #YouthExplosion2017center_img Recommended for you Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApplast_img read more

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Hurricane Maria devastates Dominica

first_img Former PNP Election candidate and businessman calls for swifter reconstruction for Capital, Grand Turk FortisTCI announces bid to hike electricity bills, cites record $42m response to hurricanes as destabilizing Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Recommended for you New, stringent posture on illegal construction makes fines, personal demolition and possible deportation legal says PDM Minister, law now passed Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppDominica, September 19th, 2017 – Roseau – Devastation has hit the Caribbean region once again as Dominica became the newest victim to be caught in another hurricane’s wrought. At 9.15pm last night, Hurricane Maria, now a category 5 Hurricane, made its official landfall in Dominica. Dominica’s Prime Minister, Roosevelt Skerrit, via a Facebook post said, “We have lost all that money can buy.”According to the national hurricane center, Hurricane Maria is moving with winds at 160mph in a West Northwest direction. Strangely enough, the hurricane took its time through Dominica moving at a slow speed of only 9miles per hour. Official reports revealed that the eye of the storm passed over Dominica last night and has since caused widespread damage.Magnetic Media also understands that almost all the roofs have been swept off buildings, the island’s hospital, Princess Margaret hospital, has been destroyed and radio stations stopped broadcasting when the hurricane hit.Prime Minister Skerrit also revealed that he too had to be rescued from his own home as his roof was blown away and his house had been flooded. He said he feared the worst and begged countries for immediate help. He added, “My greatest fear for the morning is that we will wake to news of serious physical injury and possible deaths as a result of likely landslides triggered by persistent rains.”Hurricane Maria has since skirted through islands such as Guadeloupe, Montserrat and St Kitts & Nevis before devastating Dominica. The national hurricane center predicts that it will hit the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico next. Like, Hurricane Irma, Hurricane Maria is expected to grow to winds 180mph or higher.As a result, hurricane relief efforts in the British Virgin Islands, who were recently hit by Hurricane Irma, had to be stopped as a curfew is now in effect in preparation for Hurricane Maria. Foreign officials are also warning against persons traveling to islands such as the British Virgin Islands, Anguilla and the Turks and Caicos as they are all vulnerable to the effects of Hurricane Maria. If Hurricane Maria remains a category 5 Hurricane, this will be the biggest storm to hit Puerto Rico in almost a century.Hurricane Maria quickly grew from a tropical storm last Sunday evening to a now category 5 storm as of Monday – less than24 hours – and is expected to remain a category 5 storm throughout the week.Story By: Kay-Marie Fletcher Related Items:#HurricaneMaria, #magneticmedianews, Dominicalast_img read more

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2019 Ram Heavy Duty contorts pavement with 1000 lbft of torque

first_img Share your voice 1 2020 Kia Telluride review: Kia’s new SUV has big style and bigger value See All Now playing: Watch this: 2020 BMW M340i review: A dash of M makes everything better A good lookin’ body, inside and outI have to give credit to Ram for building a heavy-duty truck that doesn’t look all that different from the Ram 1500. The Ram HD is properly handsome, and these days that seems like a weird thing to say, considering how “meh” the Ford Super Duty is, and how “oh heavens no” the Chevy Silverado HD is. The body is literally slick, too, with a decent drag coefficient of 0.409, which Ram claims is the best in the segment.If you want to look properly beefy, opt for the Power Wagon, which is the Ram HD’s most off-road-friendly variant. It’s taller than the standard Ram, with a special suspension for off-roading, locking differentials, a disconnecting sway bar and a 12,000-pound Warn winch. It also has a 360-degree camera to help navigate around obstacles. Despite the new kit, the truck is 28 pounds lighter than before.Under the body is a brand new frame made of 98.5 percent high-strength steel. It has six crossmembers, fully boxed rear rails and it’s ready for both fifth-wheel and gooseneck hitches. Despite all the beefiness, a good deal of which is necessary when your truck makes one thousand torques, use of lightweight materials results in a truck that’s up to 143 pounds lighter than before.The interior of the Ram HD borrows the same updates from its light-duty sibling. There’s a nice amount of layering on the dashboard, with plenty of storage space obvious as the eye moves downward. There’s still a healthy amount of physical switchgear, even when the infotainment screen expands to epic proportions.Enlarge ImageApparently, it is possible to make a heavy-duty truck that doesn’t look bad. Ram Good tech for a truckSpeaking of screens, the Ram 1500’s monster 12-inch Uconnect infotainment screen is available, but as with the 1500 before it, it’s not standard on every trim. The big boy can display either one page across the height of the screen, or it can run two applications simultaneously. Uconnect is one of our favorite systems across the industry, so this is definitely a good thing. A second, 7-inch screen in the gauge cluster is also available.The tech doesn’t end there. The interior rocks active noise cancellation and special acoustic glass designed to minimize unwanted noises — Ram claims this updated HD model reduces interior noise by 10 decibels. Even the HVAC system has been tweaked to deliver more air with less noise. Electric heating elements are tucked into the vents to deliver warm air faster in the winter.USB ports are all over the darn place, including Type-C ports. You can also kit out the interior with up to three 115-volt plugs, all of which can handle up to 400 watts for charging or powering various items.  On the safety front, the Ram HD can be optioned with automatic emergency braking, a 360-degree camera and a second rearview camera that looks into the bed. The truck can also monitor up to six tire pressures on the truck and an additional 12 tires for a trailer. The Ram 3500 has unique parking sensors designed to work with dually rear ends. The 2019 Ram Heavy Duty is manufactured in Mexico. Given the 2019 model year, it shouldn’t be too long before it goes on sale. Detroit Auto Show 2019 Ram 1:44 2020 Hyundai Palisade review: Posh enough to make Genesis jealous Feb 4 • 2020 Kia Telluride: Detroit Auto Show debut turns Super Bowl ad star Jan 22 • Our highlights of the 2019 Detroit Auto Show 2019 Ram Heavy Duty has all the torque Detroit Auto Show 2019 Detroit Auto Show: See all the latest coverage.Trucks: Like truck stuff? This is for you. Feb 7 • Chevy’s full-scale Lego Silverado is plastic fantastic in Chicago More From Roadshow Ram just took the Torque Wars to a whole new level, one that finally stretches into four digits.A mind-blowing powertrainThe 2019 Ram Heavy Duty (2500 and 3500) is officially the first heavy-duty truck from the US’ Big Three to reach 1,000 pound-feet of torque. That monster output comes as part of an optional 6.7-liter Cummins diesel I6, which also makes 400 horsepower. Yet, the engine weighs some 60 pounds less than its previous iteration, thanks to a new cast-iron cylinder head, lighter pistons, new connecting rods and bearings, in addition to an all-new exhaust manifold and tweaked variable-geometry turbocharger.Of course, there are other engines on offer for the 2019 Ram Heavy Duty. The base engine is a 6.4-liter V8 putting out 410 hp and 429 lb-ft. If you’re after diesel, but not the full-bore kit, there’s another Cummins on offer with 370 hp and 850 lb-ft.In terms of transmissions, the big-boy Cummins mates to a six-speed Aisin automatic that’s built specifically to handle all that torque. The other, less powerful Cummins variant uses a different six-speed automatic, while the gas V8 hooks up to an eight-speed automatic. So what does that translate to in terms of capability? To put it brusquely, it has a crapload of capability. The Ram HD will haul up to 7,680 pounds in the bed, and it will tow up to 35,100 pounds. reading • 2019 Ram Heavy Duty contorts pavement with 1,000 lb-ft of torque Trucks May 14 • History of the Toyota Supra, a Japanese sports car legend 2019 Ram HD brings a handsome face, 1,000 lb-ft of torque… Comment • Tags 99 Photos Ramlast_img read more

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Accused held from Chandigarh involved in Kolkata ATM fraud case

first_imgKolkata: One of the three Romanians, who was arrested in Chandigarh, is found to be involved in the ATM fraud case that took place in Kolkata.It may be recalled that Chandigarh police had arrested three persons including one 37-year-old Miclea Lecian Lonut a few days ago in connection with a separate ATM fraud case.Officers of the Special Investigation Team (SIT) that was formed to probe into the incident received information about the arrest of the three persons. Later, they found that one of them is also involved in the ATM fraud cases that took place in Kolkata. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeA team comprising police officers of the SIT has left for Chandigarh in this connection. It may be recalled that details of several bank account holders were collected by installing skimming machines at different ATM counters across the city.They used to prepare cloned cards using the collected details, which were later used to withdraw cash from ATMs in Delhi.Sources said the investigating officers found his photographs while going through footages of the CCTVs installed at the ATMs in Delhi. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedHe was found withdrawing cash from an ATM in Delhi and the investigating officers suspect that he had withdrawn money using a cloned card.The police are now going to record his statement in this connection. They would try to know about his connection with those arrested in Kolkata in connection with the ATM fraud. It is suspected that they are from the same gang and operate in small groups in different parts of the country. Cops are trying to find out about the counterparts in other parts of the country. Meanwhile, four persons have been arrested in connection with a case in which they used to replace new expensive mobile phones with cheaper ones before delivering them to actual owners.A 25-year-old youth, Subho Acharya, who is a resident of Shyampukur, and Mahesh Kumar Hela (23), a resident of Gariahat, were arrested with two others in this connection.They used work in a goods delivery company. Investigation revealed that they used to replace the original expensive mobile phones from sealed packets with cheaper ones.A few days ago, a complaint was lodged with Kasba police station in this connection by the company where the duo worked. It was alleged that their activity led to a loss of Rs 2,76,080 for the company.last_img read more

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