Snow optical properties at Dome C, (Concordia), Antarctica: implications for snow emissions and snow chemistry of reactive nitrogen

first_imgMeasurements of e-folding depth, nadir reflectivityand stratigraphy of the snowpack around Concordia station(Dome C, 75.10 S, 123.31 E) were undertaken to determinewavelength dependent coefficients (350 nm to 550 nm)for light scattering and absorption and to calculate potential fluxes (depth-integrated production rates) of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the snowpack due to nitrate photolysis within the snowpack. The stratigraphy of the top 80 cm of Dome C snowpack generally consists of three main layers:- a surface of soft windpack (not ubiquitous), a hard windpack, and a hoar-like layer beneath the windpack(s). The e-folding depths are 10 cm for the two windpack layers and 20 cm for the hoar-like layer for solar radiation at a wavelength of 400 nm; about a factor 2–4 larger than previous model estimates for South Pole. The absorption cross-section due to impurities in each snowpack layer are consistent with a combination of absorption due to black carbon and HULIS (HUmic LIke Substances), with amounts of 1–2 ng g−1 of black carbon for the surface snow layers. Depth-integrated photochemicalproduction rates of NO2 in the Dome C snowpack were calculated as 5.3×1012 moleculesm−2 s−1, 2.3×1012 moleculesm−2 s−1 and 8×1011 moleculesm−2 s−1 for clearskies and solar zenith angles of 60, 70 and 80 respectively using the TUV-snow radiative-transfer model. Depending upon the snowpack stratigraphy, a minimum of 85% of the NO2 may originate from the top 20 cm of the Dome C snowpack. It is found that on a multi-annual time-scale photolysis can remove up to 80% of nitrate from surface snow, confirming independent isotopic evidence that photolysis is an important driver of nitrate loss occurring in the EAIS (East Antarctic Ice Sheet) snowpack. However, the model cannot completely account for the total observed nitrate loss of 90–95% or the shape of the observed nitrate concentration depth profile. A more complete model will need to include also physical processes such as evaporation, re-deposition or diffusion between the quasi-liquid layer on snow grains and firn air to account for the discrepancies.last_img read more

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Pipeshield wins big on the global stage

first_img Orders have been placed with Pipeshield to design, manufacture and deliver over 200 various size mattresses and over 70 concrete sleepers for major subsea oil and gas projects in the region. (Credit: Pipeshield.) Pipeshield International, a Tekmar Group company, sees a fruitful first quarter in 2020 having secured 20 new projects with a multi-million-dollar total value from customers in the UK, Europe, US, Middle East and Asia.The projects contribute to the continued growth of Pipeshield’s order book and demonstrate the company’s ability to support multiple clients, sectors and projects on a global scale.Amongst the awards is a contract to supply over 90 4Te Precise Rock Placement Units (PRP’s) to the Marine Civils Market in the UK.  This is an important award for the company having identified global marine civils as a significant growth area.Almost half of the new awards come from customers in Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia and the UAE. The UAE awards follow the successful registration of Pipeshield International Trading LLC with ADNOC for concrete mattresses and fabric formworks, which was also achieved during this period. Orders have been placed with Pipeshield to design, manufacture and deliver over 200 various size mattresses and over 70 concrete sleepers for major subsea oil and gas projects in the region. Production will take place at Pipeshield’s dedicated supply bases in Dammam, Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Baku.Pipeshield continues to support the UK and European offshore oil and gas market and has picked up contracts to design, manufacture and supply over 250 concrete and uniflex mattresses, 400 bolster bags, PRP’s, grout, speed loaders and dual release frames for mattress deployment. The company will also supply protection mattresses and lifting frames to the UK, French and US offshore wind markets.David Blake, General Manager said; “We are proud of the company’s performance and would like to thank the Pipeshield team, our suppliers, partners and customers for helping us continue to deliver, especially during these difficult times.  We look forward to providing our customers with market-leading subsea protection and stabilising solutions. Source: Company Press Release The contracts include a supply of more than 90 4Te Precise Rock Placement Units (PRP’s) to the Marine Civils Market in the UKlast_img read more

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Full details of Welsh housing market ‘circuit-breaker’ rules published

first_imgEstate agents have been told the full consequences of the two-week lockdown starting this Friday at 6pm for its ‘circuit-breaker’ Covid fortnight.Due to end on November 9th, the temporary lockdown will effectively close down large swathes of the housing market; non-essential, non-food businesses must close their premises and some visits to properties will be outlawed under the new rules, as will non-essential travel. As in everything Covid, the rules are a patchwork of compromises.The rulesCan home moves take place?Yes, if people can’t delay the moving date until after the short lockdown period is over. Associated activities, for example, removals processes, property preparation, handover of keys, surveys and valuations can also take place in line with guidance on working in other people’s homes.Can home viewings take place?No. Property viewings cannot take place during the circuit breaker period and high street estate agencies are required to close. Virtual viewings can continue.Can a mortgage survey be done at a property?Surveyors should not enter occupied properties during the lockdown period. Vacant properties can be entered and street level surveys can take place.Outside of these rules, no gatherings will be permitted in Wales during the circuit-breaker between people who do not live together, either indoors or outdoors.Protect NHSMaking the announcement, First Minister Mark Drakeford (above) said: “Unless we act the NHS will not be able to look after the increasing number of people who are falling ill due to this deadly virus.“This is the shortest we can make it, but will be sharp and deep.”The First Minister also confirmed that students will be required to lockdown in their student accommodation.  He also revealed an enhanced package of Covid support for businesses including an additional £300 million added to the country’s Economic Resilience Fund.SME businesses including agents will also automatically be given £5,000 if they are required to close – although the Welsh government has yet to confirm if this will include estate agencies.lockdown Mark Drakeford Wales Welsh Government October 19, 2020Nigel LewisWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021 Hong Kong remains most expensive city to rent with London in 4th place30th April 2021 Home » COVID-19 support » Full details of Welsh housing market ‘circuit-breaker’ rules published previous nextCOVID-19 newsFull details of Welsh housing market ‘circuit-breaker’ rules publishedFirst Minister says short, sharp shock will save lives and include bans on gatherings and travel, and closure of most non-food businesses.Nigel Lewis19th October 202008,940 Viewslast_img read more

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Chocolate supplier Barry Callebaut expands in Mexico

first_imgChocolate and cocoa product manufacturer Barry Callebaut has opened a new chocolate factory in Mexico, strengthening its position in the North American chocolate market. The factory, based in Monterrey, will enable an annual production of around 100,000 tonnes and will act as a gateway between the company’s Central and South American markets. It will be Callebaut’s third largest production facility worldwide and cost approximately USD40 million.The firm said the new factory is “paramount” to its global expansion plans and “underlines the company’s commitment to the Americas”. The factory has been designed to manufacture industrial chocolate – liquid and moulded – in addition to compound. Full capacity is expected to be reached within five years.“Our new chocolate factory in Monterrey, Mexico, will enable Barry Callebaut to move closer to its growing customer base of multinational and local food manufacturers in this region,” commented chief executive officer, Patrick De Maeseneire. “Chocolate confectionery in Mexico is expected to grow on average by 6.5% per year in value terms over the next five years. These growth projections make the Mexican market a very attractive investment for Barry Callebaut.”The Zurich-based company operates eight chocolate and cocoa factories in the Americas and is present in 26 countries.last_img read more

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For Supreme Court justices, faith in law

first_imgThe mood was festive, rather than disputatious, on Friday evening as Supreme Court Associate Justices Stephen G. Breyer, J.D. ’64, and Neil M. Gorsuch, J.D. ’91, sat down to discuss “the rule of law.”The conversation, moderated by Jeffrey Rosen ’86, president of the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, capped a Harvard Marshall Forum dinner in the Harvard Art Museums’ courtyard, celebrating the 70th anniversary of the trans-Atlantic scholarship, which Breyer won in 1959 and Gorsuch did in 1992. And although both justices spent some time recalling their experiences as Marshall scholars, in his first public appearance since joining the court in April Gorsuch dropped some intriguing hints about his views of the law and the role of the court.Speaking of the traits shared by the British and U.S. legal systems, the new justice stressed the importance of law and the primacy of the court. Referring to a “common heritage,” he cited the shared “sense that judges can safely decide the law without fear of reprisal.” This holds true, he said, no matter who is the plaintiff or defendant, as he added that in our system “the government can lose a judgment in its own courts and accept that judgment.”Speaking a day after President Trump called for the Supreme Court to review the lower court decision to block his executive order on immigration, Gorsuch’s words took on extra weight as he said: “That’s how we resolve differences in this country.”Both justices stressed the importance of the general acceptance of rule of law, as well as the civility of the court. The justices shake hands before ascending to the bench, explained Gorsuch, who described the institution as “just nine people in polyester black robes.”“Nine people appointed by six presidents,” he noted. “We’re unanimous about 40 percent of the time.”The exceptions are notable, but even so the rule of law holds. Breyer, for example, brought up Bush v. Gore, which decided the 2000 presidential election. “It was wrong, in my opinion,” the justice said. “But people followed it. They did not go out … and shoot other people.”Comparing the British and U.S. systems, Gorsuch noted the similarities, stemming from the Magna Carta, in that both are adversarial and based on the notion of “certain human rights” and “limited government.”In terms of differences, Gorsuch noted the American system of judicial review, which allows courts to strike down existing law. Some British justices, he said, find this “very worrisome,” adding that this possibility “may be worrisome to some here” as well.He later discussed how only small a percentage of the cases (roughly 300,000 annually) that come before the Supreme Court ever make it onto its docket of 80 or so, “in a good year.”Following an acknowledgments of the work by moderator Rosen (a Marshall scholar in 1988) with the nonpartisan Constitution Center, both justices briefly discussed the role of this foundational document. Gorsuch noted, “Our Constitution was aimed at preserving, not preventing, certain civil liberties.”To an audience of dignitaries and fellow Marshall scholars, the justices spent much of the hourlong conversation in fond reminiscence. Both discussed having their worldviews broadened by the scholarship, which for both was a first overseas experience. Both have since married British women, Gorsuch meeting his future wife in Christ Church Hall at Oxford. This prompted Breyer to note, “I too have married a British woman, and she’s beautiful, but it’s not the same one.”last_img read more

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New Extension Model

first_imgAmid a growing epidemic of deep budget cuts to colleges of agriculture across the country, many states have redesigned their teaching, research and extension programs to fit their funding. Each has searched for a perfect model that will serve its clientele as well as the century-old system that made the American agriculture system the world leader in food production. Our system of educating students to lead the industry, conducting robust research to solve problems and enhance agricultural production, and delivering that research to all growers in every county of the state through Cooperative Extension has been a good one. To run smoothly, however, the system depends on solid cooperative funding from federal, state and county governments.Budget cutsAs each level of government has faced economic hardships, land-grant universities watched funding for agriculture shrink. Over the past two years, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension has lost 23 percent of its state funding. Due to these cuts, we have eliminated, through attrition and retirement, 88 county extension agents and 26 specialist and administrator positions. With lawmakers predicting even deeper cuts in the 2012 state budget, we can no longer sustain our current education delivery model. In March, we began gathering information from those we serve, our employees and other states to help us formulate a new plan for how we can continue to support Georgia agriculture and keep the largest sector of our state economy growing. With just 113 agriculture agents, 36 family and consumer science agents and 90 4-H agents remaining, and 159 counties to serve, we knew we couldn’t continue to fully support every county. The planUsing a range of criteria specific to each county, we developed a new structure that will work best to continue to bring vital education from the university to the Georgians who need it. The framework for the new delivery model will be based on tiers of service, meaning services in a county will depend on the needs and available funding in that county.As we implement this plan we will add to our catalog of online materials and work to create a more active virtual community for educating consumers and growers. We will offer more multi-county programs, too, especially in specialized crops and training areas. We are working very hard to ensure some level of 4-H program for every county to support leadership and youth development for our young people. For many schools, 4-H is a vital part of their hands-on, applied science curriculum. We want to strengthen that support to help school systems, which are struggling with their own budget problems, to meet science education goals.When you buy a new car, it takes a while to get used to the new look and feel of how it handles. There are new features and gadgets to figure out. As we roll out this new model, Cooperative Extension may take on a new look and feel in your county. We will have some new features. Some old ones will be phased out. But we will do our best to continue delivering the reliable service and education across the state that you know and trust.last_img read more

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Now That’s Sick

first_imgIt’s hard to judge how soon after being sick one can take back to the bike. I guess it depends on what kind of sick it is, and what part of the body had it the worst.I, for instance, was paralyzed in my bed on Sunday with an impromptu colon cleanse. I would like to add that Sunday is my day to ride all day if I want. The one day that I am free from the chains of sticky popsicle hands, dead worms, and mopping yet another pool of pee off of the kitchen floor from…whomever.Imagine my surprise at 4 a.m. when I awoke nauseous and cramped into fetal position. The first thought is, “No! If I hold very still it will go away!” That lasted about two fragile breaths before lurching to the bathroom door in a very unquiet fashion. It’s important in my bedroom to be very quiet when navigating across the floor of Legos, sleeping puppies and laundry piles. SOME PEOPLE become very angry when such a trip becomes eventful.Well it was eventful. I even had the audacity to flush.I had just gotten back to about ten days of good running and riding with sporty new Hi-Tec trail shoes and a regular Tuesday night babysitter for rides when the shit literally hit the fan.I spent hours depleting my body of every drip of fluid before collapsing into a crumpled heap. My body ached with desire to sweat, but there was nothing left. The fan carried the smell of frying bacon into my bed, heaving me back to the bathroom…again and again.I fumbled for my phone to text for the delivery – from two rooms away – of a recovery drink that I had imagined I would be sipping at this very same hour, yet next to a cool stream with mud-splattered legs.I texted again when I couldn’t stand long enough in the window light to read the Tylenol PM bottle instructions, only to learn that I was home alone as everyone was out hiking the Mountains to Sea trail. Children born to unmarried parents are called what? I guessed the dose, which resulted in my first two hours of blissful sleep, followed by a brave foray to the deck. All of this excitement resulted in a complete 12 hours of sleep.I awoke feeling absolutely fine – just in time for a full day’s work. I couldn’t decide whether I was relieved by the timing due to the recent work schedule, or barmy. 1 2last_img read more

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New Snack Bars Hit The Market: an interview with Uncomplicated Foods

first_imgAn Uncomplicated ChoiceWith the deluge of snack and energy bars now available, it can be hard to choose which one is right for you. Look beyond the claims on the front of the packaging that scream, “high fiber, sugar free, protein packed, etc.,” and check out what’s on the back. Ever heard of the first five ingredients? Are they whole foods? Can you pronounce them? Why does a snack bar have to be so complicated? Maybe it doesn’t.We sat down with Talia Klein, owner of Uncomplicated Foods, and creator of Tali-O Bites, to learn more about these bars, her company and her mission to bring the world less complicated, more satisfying foods.BRO: What inspired you to start Uncomplicated Foods?TALIA: I started making bars several years ago for my own person eating enjoyment, and I had no intention of ever starting a business. I started making my own bars because, honestly, I was so tired of all the bars that I was buying. I wanted a healthy snack to eat that was satisfying and tasty, so I played around with different flavors and ingredients until I was happy. My friends would always ask me what I was eating, since I would pack my bars everywhere I went, and after they tried them they started asking me if I would make some for them…so I did, happily. After a few months of regularly making bars for my family and friends, I was encouraged to start a business. I felt very encouraged, so I went for it!BRO: What was missing in the marketplace that you saw a need for?TALIA: Bites, but I didn’t know that when I started. In fact I had no intention of making bites. When I first started I was only making 2-oz. bars, which is larger than most bars on the market. I found that when I was really hungry, I could eat one of my bars easily. However, when I was mildly hungry or just wanting a little bit to hold me over, eating a whole bar was too much. So I decided to create TALI-O Bites. I have two sizes of the bites, a 2-oz. and a 6-oz. bag of bites, both in resealable bags.BRO: What makes your bars different?TALIA: Our Bars and Bites have really unique flavor profiles, like our Taste the Tahini Bar, which has the subtle hint of tahini and ginger. All of our bars have very similar ingredient, but when you taste them all, you will be amazed at how different from one another they actually are. Sadly, there are many bars out in the marketplace that are promoting health and nutrition, but in actuality they are glorified candy bars. Tali-O Bars and Bites have no added sugars, period. Our number one ingredient for all our bars and bites are dates, and I have created a recipe that allows the natural sugars to be just enough. Our bars are also very well balanced in terms of their carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. There is a lot of fiber in all of our products which helps make your body feel full and slows down the absorption of sugars into the bloodstream. So when you eat a Tali-O you get a sustained energy from the sugar in the dates without a huge spike in your insulin levels.BRO: What sports/activities are your bars ideal for?Tali-O-OnShelvesTALIA: I personally eat some bites before I head into a yoga class for a little bit of energy to get me through. I have had fans of TALI-O tell me that they love throwing a bag of bits in their gym bags, eating them after a long bike ride, after a Crossfit class, while on a paddleboard, and while hiking. Our motto is “Get Out and Go”, so really any activity. We love it when our fans send us pictures of them enjoying their favorite activities fueled by Tali-O’s.BRO: How long will your bars/bites last?TALIA: Our bars and bites have a great shelf life. I like to refrigerate my Tali-O’s, however that is not necessary; but in the refrigerator they can last up to a year. If you want to keep your Tali-O’s at room temperature they will last for 3-4 months. I would suggest that you keep them out of direct sunlight to keep the all-natural ingredients from oxidizing.BRO: Where can consumers purchase your product?TALIA: From our website: www.uncomplicatedfoods.com. We are hoping to get in stores all across the country, but as a small company we are only in a handful of places in Seattle right now. All of our bars are handmade and ship within one to two days of an order being placed. All orders over $30 dollars come with free shipping, so stock up!BRO: What beer pairs best with your bars?I think Guinness would go great with our bars, especially our Powerfully Peanut bar. Hmmm… I might have to try that right now!–TALI-O is offering BRO readers a 15% discount! Enter the promo code luckyme2 at checkout. Deal ends July 30 with no limit to how many times it can be used.Tali-O-Bites-1last_img read more

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USS Ingraham succeeds in supporting Operación MARTILLO

first_imgThe crew of the suspect boat threw the cocaine overboard and tried to flee after seeing the Ingraham’s helicopters approaching. But the vessel halted when warning shots were fired by a U.S. Coast Guard marksman from the helicopter, enabling a U.S. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment team (LEDET) to board the boat and arrest the three suspected narco-traffickers. In 2013, the forces of Operación MARTILLO seized 131 metric tons of cocaine, more than 32,000 pounds of marijuana, and 4,000 grams of heroin, in addition to capturing 295 suspects. Since it arrived in the region in March to assist the 4th Fleet, the guided-missile frigate has recorded 14 successful interdictions, preventing about 11,937 kilograms of cocaine from reaching the street. The vessel’s crew has made a number of large seizures. For example, on August 25 the crew seized 550 kilograms from a go-fast boat off the coast of Guatemala. Under Operación MARTILLO the U.S. military, Coast Guard, regional partner nation military forces and law enforcement agencies work together to constantly patrol the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and the Eastern Pacific to locate and bust drug traffickers. At-sea interdictions are highly coordinated. After a suspicious boat is identified by a participating nation, a U.S. Coast Guard LEDET or partner nation law enforcement agency carries out the boarding and searching of the vessel, in addition to making arrests. Since it arrived in the region in March to assist the 4th Fleet, the guided-missile frigate has recorded 14 successful interdictions, preventing about 11,937 kilograms of cocaine from reaching the street. The vessel’s crew has made a number of large seizures. For example, on August 25 the crew seized 550 kilograms from a go-fast boat off the coast of Guatemala. The Coast Guard Cutter Bertholf, the USS McClusky, the USS Vandegrift, the Ingraham, the Coast Guard Tactical Law Enforcement Team South from Miami, Fla., and Coast Guard Helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron from Jacksonville, Fla., also made seizures and detained 36 additional alleged smugglers in the Eastern Pacific. The crew of the suspect boat threw the cocaine overboard and tried to flee after seeing the Ingraham’s helicopters approaching. But the vessel halted when warning shots were fired by a U.S. Coast Guard marksman from the helicopter, enabling a U.S. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment team (LEDET) to board the boat and arrest the three suspected narco-traffickers. The Ingraham and the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Boutwell were on patrol when their commanders were notified by a maritime aircraft of a suspicious vessel. The operation combines the forces of 10 countries in the Americas – Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá, Canada, and the United States – along with France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. These countries work together to share information and use their air, land, and maritime forces to counter illicit trafficking by limiting the use of Central America as a transit area. The operation combines the forces of 10 countries in the Americas – Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá, Canada, and the United States – along with France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. These countries work together to share information and use their air, land, and maritime forces to counter illicit trafficking by limiting the use of Central America as a transit area. “It has also been a unique opportunity to get to work with so many diverse assets here in Fourth Fleet: three different LEDETs, two USCG Cutters, two other U.S. Navy Frigates and three helicopter detachments. The integration is exceptional.” By Dialogo October 23, 2014 In 2013, the forces of Operación MARTILLO seized 131 metric tons of cocaine, more than 32,000 pounds of marijuana, and 4,000 grams of heroin, in addition to capturing 295 suspects. The USS Ingraham has made quite an impact supporting Operación MARTILLO, a multinational mission to crack down on illicit drug trafficking routes in coastal waters along the Central American isthmus. “I could not be more proud of my crew,” said Cmdr. Dan Straub, the USS Ingraham’s commanding officer. “The operational tempo has been high for our entire deployment and Ingraham sailors have done a fantastic job.” Between July and October, Operación MARTILLO seized about 14 tons of cocaine, worth an estimated $423 million (USD). The seized cocaine was offloaded at Naval Base San Diego, in the state of California, on October 6. During those four months, the Boutwell made six interdictions, seizing more than 2,267 kilograms of cocaine worth more than $75 million (USD). Its crew captured 19 alleged drug smugglers. “I could not be more proud of my crew,” said Cmdr. Dan Straub, the USS Ingraham’s commanding officer. “The operational tempo has been high for our entire deployment and Ingraham sailors have done a fantastic job.” “It has also been a unique opportunity to get to work with so many diverse assets here in Fourth Fleet: three different LEDETs, two USCG Cutters, two other U.S. Navy Frigates and three helicopter detachments. The integration is exceptional.” The Ingraham and the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Boutwell were on patrol when their commanders were notified by a maritime aircraft of a suspicious vessel. The Coast Guard Cutter Bertholf, the USS McClusky, the USS Vandegrift, the Ingraham, the Coast Guard Tactical Law Enforcement Team South from Miami, Fla., and Coast Guard Helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron from Jacksonville, Fla., also made seizures and detained 36 additional alleged smugglers in the Eastern Pacific. The USS Ingraham has made quite an impact supporting Operación MARTILLO, a multinational mission to crack down on illicit drug trafficking routes in coastal waters along the Central American isthmus. Between July and October, Operación MARTILLO seized about 14 tons of cocaine, worth an estimated $423 million (USD). The seized cocaine was offloaded at Naval Base San Diego, in the state of California, on October 6. During those four months, the Boutwell made six interdictions, seizing more than 2,267 kilograms of cocaine worth more than $75 million (USD). Its crew captured 19 alleged drug smugglers. Under Operación MARTILLO the U.S. military, Coast Guard, regional partner nation military forces and law enforcement agencies work together to constantly patrol the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and the Eastern Pacific to locate and bust drug traffickers. At-sea interdictions are highly coordinated. After a suspicious boat is identified by a participating nation, a U.S. Coast Guard LEDET or partner nation law enforcement agency carries out the boarding and searching of the vessel, in addition to making arrests.last_img read more

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Bar’s MDP panel gets down to business

first_img May 1, 2001 Gary Blankenship Senior Editor Regular News Bar’s MDP panel gets down to business Senior Editor Improving education about what constitutes the unlicensed practice of law, investigating CPA-approved “cognitors,” finding out whether attorneys and social workers are wrongfully sharing fees, and other issues are getting the attention of the Bar’s Special Commission on Multidisciplinary Practice and Ancillary Business. The commission met recently and discussed plans for a CLE course to help lawyers who want to set up ancillary businesses and ways to educate Bar members about both MDP and ancillary business issues. The committee will also continue to gather input from Bar members. Commission Co-chair John Hume told the Bar Board of Governors March 30 that the commission is working actively on several matters. The commission has contacted a wide variety of voluntary bars, Hume said, to get their views about ancillary businesses and multidisciplinary practices. The “overwhelming response,” he said, despite years of debate and study by the Bar is many lawyers are still unfamiliar with the issues surrounding those topics. The commission is working to get speakers who can go to those bars and explain the issues, he said. (An ancillary business is when a lawyer or law firm wants to branch out into a nonlegal business, which may be related to the law firm’s services, such as financial or investigative services. The Bar has proposed a rule, suggested by a prior MDP committee and which is pending at the Supreme Court, to address ancillary businesses since there was no single place in the Bar rules to guide lawyers on this issue. Lawyers, under the proposed rule, would be bound by their ethical duties as a lawyer to ancillary business customers unless they disclose to the customer, preferably in writing, that no legal services are being provided and there is no attorney-client relationship. A multidisciplinary practice is when the lawyer works for a business that is wholly or partially controlled by nonlawyers and provides legal services for clients of that business. The Board of Governors has opposed that as contrary to the core values of the profession of independent judgment and loyalty to the client.) As part of the education effort, one subcommittee has been studying what constitutes the practice of law and through UPL Director Lori Holcomb prepared a summary of UPL case law. Hume said that document is intended to help lawyers and nonlawyers understand what constitutes UPL and improve reporting of possible violations. A copy is reproduced here for Bar members’ information. The commission is looking into two topics related to MDPs, Hume said. One is the possible illegal combination of lawyers and social workers in adoption cases where legal fees perhaps are being split with nonlawyers. Tampa area attorney Jeanne Tate, who has talked to commission members, relayed a case she saw in which a social worker did all the adoption work, and then an attorney submitted the bill and split the fee with her. Work done by the social worker included interviewing the adoptive and birth parents, taking the legal papers to the birth parents to relinquish their rights, and other similar tasks. “It seemed like the attorney was using the social worker to do everything in connection with the adoption, charging a rather large legal fee and then giving a cut [of the fee] back to the social worker,” she said. The second issue is a new trend by CPAs and accounting firms to use “cognitors.” “He subcontracts out the legal work and other work [to a client]. He’s sort of a fixer,” Hume said. “This seems to get in the area of multidisciplinary practice. They say you don’t have to be a CPA to be one, but you have to be recommended by two of them to be considered a cognitor. This is part of their vision to control the practice.” He said the commission is gathering more information about cognitors. On ancillary businesses, Hume said the commission is working on two different ways to help Bar members. One is a model client disclosure form to use with the pending ancillary rule, he said. The second is a CLE program to be run by the Young Lawyers Division during the Bar’s January Midyear Meeting. The tentative plan is for that course to be low cost and also include ethics and professionalism credits, Hume said. The commission is continuing to seek input, questions, and areas in which it might investigate from Bar members. Interested lawyers should contact Bar Ethics Counsel Elizabeth Tarbert at (850) 561-5780, e-mail at [email protected], or by writing her at The Florida Bar, 651 E. Jefferson Street, Tallahassee 32399-2300. Bar’s MDP panel gets down to businesslast_img read more

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